Country Report

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Country reports are short essays that describe and analyze data for each country.  Authors follow a similar format interpreted as appropriate for their country. The reports contain basic methodological information about the survey, most importantly the sampling procedure, as well as a description of important domestic or international conditions affecting attitudes during the period covered. They provide a summary of the most important findings.  The new findings are normally compared to previous findings, when available.  An appendix with tables presenting the detailed findings covered in the analysis is attached to each report.  Country reports cover the main themes of the surveys: understanding the meaning of democracy, perception of economic issues, citizenship and rights, the role of religion and social values, public institutions and trust in their effectiveness, and Arab and international issues.



  • Algerians differed greatly in their views of the most basic characteristic of “democracy”.
    Approximately half of the respondents stated that the most important characteristic was economic in
    nature. Overall, the plurality (29.8%) of respondents stated that the most important characteristic is a
    small income gap between rich and poor while 20.9% of respondents said it was the provision of basic
    necessities including food and shelter for all citizens. The other half of respondents stated that the most
    important characteristic was political, with 27.6% of respondents stating it is the opportunity to change
    government through elections and 21.6% of respondents stating it is the ability to criticize the
    government or the right to free speech. Less than 1% of respondents provided a different answer for
    the most important characteristic of democracy.

  • (in Arabic)

  • File link: Arab Barometer IV - Algeria

  • Overview 

    Few Algerians are satisfied with the state of education in their country and a majority of the

    population is dissatisfied with the formal education system. However, a plurality approves

    of government efforts to improve the education system even though an overwhelming

    majority of Algerians are worried about the ability to provide children with a good

    education. Given these sentiments, supplementary education programs outside the formal

    curriculum could be used to help alleviate these concerns.

    Even though few Algerians participate in youth non-formal education programs, the

    country enjoys higher rates of participation than do many other countries in the Middle

    East and North Africa. Among those who have participated, rates of satisfaction with such

    programs are high overall. Nevertheless, the reputation of NFE leaves much to be desired,

    with over half of non-participants holding a negative view of such programs. To increase

    their viability, NFE programs need to improve their popular image in Algeria. Meanwhile,

    the primary barrier to participation is cost, indicating that efforts to increase enrollment in

    NFE must also address affordability.

    Algerians are most interested in NFE programs that emphasize job-related skills that in turn

    promote career development. Moreover, the results of the survey make clear that critical

    and analytical thinking in the education system are also highly valued by ordinary

    Algerians. This finding holds across a variety of demographic differences, indicating

    widespread support throughout the country. If barriers are limited and programs

    emphasizing skills of interest to Algerians are promoted, then youth non-formal education

    programs are more likely to be successful in addressing the needs of Algerian citizens.

    Download Full Report : 

    File link: Views of Non-Formal Education in Algeria


  • File link: Arab Barometer II - Egypt

  • File link: Arab Barometer IV - Egypt

  • Egyptians are deeply concerned about the state of education in their country. The vast majority are dissatisfied with the current education system as well as government efforts to improve it.
    Perhaps as a result, most are worried that there is no possibility to provide their children with a good education. This combination means that youth non-formal education (NFE) programs hold a unique opportunity to yield significant gains in the
    academic achievement of students in Egypt in the near-term. However, if such programs are to address both the perceived weaknesses of the Egyptian education system and the
    concerns of the population, issues like cost, which limit participation, must be seriously considered. Across all demographics, cost is overwhelmingly cited as the biggest barrier to
    participation. The prevalence of programs organized by private institutions only exacerbates this challenge.
    In addition, programs must account for demographic differences. At present, the majority of youth who participate in NFE programs come from families with higher incomes, higher
    education levels and who live in urban areas. Expanding opportunities for accessing youth NFE programs requires special focus on targeting Egyptians who reside in rural areas, who
    have incomes below the median, and whose tend to have lower levels of education.
    Non-formal education programs provide unique potential for bridging the gap between the existing education system and what increasing educational opportunities for the country’s
    youth. However, careful consideration must be given to the types of programs most likely to be successful in the Egyptian context. Although youth NFE programs tend to be viewed
    positively across the country, a substantial portion of Egyptians are either unaware of such programs or do not look upon them favorably. Moreover, programs should target
    job-related skills as Egyptians consider these the most useful.
    NFE programs should be promoted to potential participants with this consideration in mind.

    Please download the following report :

    File link: Views of Non-Formal Education in Egypt


  • The second wave of the Arab Barometer survey was conducted in Iraq between February
    20th and March 12th of 2012. As Iraq was not included in the first wave of the Arab Barometer,
    this survey was the first of its kind in the country. This report outlines the views of Iraqi citizens
    on issues of religion, economic and political outlooks, satisfaction with the government and other
    institutions, trust, attitudes towards women, and views of the United States. It also examines
    differences (where applicable) between Sunni’s and Shi’ites as well as between Arabs and

    File link: Arab Barometer II - Iraq




  • File link: Arab Barometer IV - Morocco

  • Overview

    Few Roughly half of Moroccans are dissatisfied with their country’s formal educational

    system, but, relatively speaking, Moroccans are more satisfied with the state of the formal

    education system than they are with other government-provided services such as health

    care. Nevertheless, findings from the Arab Barometer public opinion survey reveal there is

    significant concern about the effectiveness of the government’s efforts to address

    educational needs. Moreover, they also show that most Moroccans worry about the ability

    to provide children with a quality education. Given these sentiments, supplementary

    programs outside the formal system could play a role in improving educational outcomes

    in Morocco.

    At present, very few Moroccans participate in youth non-formal education (NFE) programs.

    However, among those who live in a household that includes a participant in such a

    program, levels of satisfaction are very high. Meanwhile, among households without a

    participant, a sizable minority hold a negative perception of these programs. Thus, it

    appears that participation and the perception of such programs are linked. Likely, if more

    Moroccan youth took part in such programs, views of NFE programs would improve in the

    Kingdom. Overall, the most salient barrier to participation is cost, meaning any efforts to

    increase participation must address the affordability of non-formal education programs.

    The types of NFE programs that are most preferred by Moroccans are those that provide

    youth with practical and tangible skills related to career development. However, citizens

    also appear open to programs that promote skills in critical thinking. For example, survey

    results show that Moroccans across all demographic backgrounds prefer an educational

    system that stresses critical thinking over one emphasizing rote memorization. While there

    remain a number of important barriers to consider in designing non-formal education

    programs focused on teaching these skills, such programs have potential to successfully

    address many of the needs of Moroccan youth.

    Download Full Report:

    File link: Views of Non-Formal Education in Morocco


  • In May 2006, the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research undertook a public
    opinion poll to measure the stances and beliefs of the Palestinian public about democracy.
    This poll was carried out with the cooperation of other Arab research centers and
    academic institutions aiming to measure the views of the Arab street on questions
    revolving around democracy. The poll was completed with the cooperation of Dr. Mark
    Tessler at the University of Michigan – Ann Arbor and Dr. Amaney Jamal at Princeton
    University and supervised by Khalil Shikaki at the Palestinian Center for Policy and
    Survey Research.

  • (in Arabic)

  • (in Arabic)

  • File link: Palestine Education Report


  • Based on the second wave of the Arab Barometer survey, this report presents the
    opinions of Sudanese citizens on social, economic and political issues. Specifically, the report
    focuses on the following themes: (1) the economic situation of the country, (2) religious
    practices and the role of religion in society and politics, (3) political systems, democracy, the
    assessment of the government and public institutions in terms of efficiency, corruption and
    transparency, (4) the role of women in society, and (5) international relations and the United
    States. Sudan Polling and Statistics Center (SPSC) conducted the survey between 10/12/2010
    and 30/12/2010.

    File link: Arab Barometer II - Sudan


  • The Center for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan supervised a project to
    measure Arab public opinion in the Republic of Yemen in cooperation with Interaction in
    Development. In addition to Yemen, this poll was carried out in Morocco, Algeria,
    Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Kuwait with cooperation of the University of Michigan –
    Ann Arbor and Princeton University. Additionally, the project was completed in
    partnership with organizations and research centers in each of the aforementioned
    countries. The poll was carried out in the months of November-December in 2007 and
    surveyed 1,200 residences.